Labour Market Analysis

We have extensive experience in analysing labour markets using the entire range of instruments of empirical labour market research. This includes the collection, statistical analysis, description, visualisation, and comparative evaluation of labour market data.

Our work covers a wide range of topics, including:

(i) Skills mismatch: we have several years of experience studying skills mismatches across several European and non-European countries based on labour force survey and administrative data. We developed and analysed skills mismatch indicators for the European Training Foundation (ETF). We also studied the determinants of skills mismatch across countries and the wage penalty associated to skill mismatches.

(ii) Skills forecasting: we have more than 20 years of experience in developing labour market forecasts. We have been developing national, regional, and sectoral methodologies and we contributed to forecasting models that are used by organisations such as the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), the German Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS), or the Bertelsmann Foundation.

(iii) Skills needs assessment and anticipation: we analysed data on skills needs anticipation systems and approaches collected by the OECD, ILO, ETF, and Cedefop from ministries of labour and education, trade unions, and employer organisations in 61 countries; we reviewed and applied methodologies for skills foresight scenarios and forecasts; and we developed a methodological toolkit for assessing and anticipating skills needs in Africa for the UNESCO International Institute for Education and Planning (IIEP-UNESCO).

(iv) Comparative studies: we conducted studies for the ILO on the impact of technological change on future skills needs in selected sectors through literature reviews and case studies in low and middle-income countries (Tanzania, India, Cambodia and Argentina) and on the impact of digitalization on the chemical sector in Germany. We also conducted several desk researches to study the evolution of the labour market and education systems in European countries for the European Parliament and the European Commission.

(v) Statistical services: we have been constructing and analysing composite indicators for the Torino Process evaluation (a periodical review of policies and practices in Vocational Education and Training (VET)), collecting Key Indicators on Education, Skills and Employment (KIESE) indicators and reviewing datasets concerning the implementation of Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) in several European and non-European countries for the European Training Foundation (ETF).


Economics & Data has extensive experience in conducting surveys using a variety of methods, including traditional Pen and Paper (P&P), online Computer-Assisted Web Interviewing (CAWI), and telephone-based Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) techniques. We support our clients in sample selection for accurate target group representation and excel in data processing, including cleaning, weighting, depersonalising, and providing detailed quality reports and accessible analyses.

For many years, we have been implementing the German job vacancy survey for the Research Institute of the German Federal Employment Agency (IAB). We have also successfully implemented several multilingual survey projects carried out in support of the European Training Foundation (ETF).

Policy Evaluation

We conducted a rigorous evaluation study of a literacy programme for female refugees in Afghanistan on several outcomes among which labour market participation and earnings. We developed the survey to collect primary data, a methodology for the analysis and we wrote the evaluation report for DVV International. The rigorousness of the analysis was recognized by the publication of the study in an international peer-reviewed journal.